Since the beginning of 2022, we have been observing a deterioration of the humanitarian access situation in some crises as a direct consequence of a worsening in context, as in the case of Myanmar and Ukraine.
The overall access score by country is ranked according to the following scale:
5 - Extreme access constraints
4 - Very high access constraints
3 - High access constraints
2 - Moderate access constraints
1 - Low access constraints
0 - No significant access constraints
Where are the biggest access constraints?
countries with extreme access constraints
countries with high access constraints
CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC (CAR)
DEMOCRATIC PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF KOREA (DPRK)
countries with veryhigh access constraints
DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO (DRC)
STATE OF PALESTINE
Over the past six months, the humanitarian access situation has deteriorated in Chad, El Salvador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Namibia, Pakistan, Sudan, Ukraine, and Yemen
Ukraine and El Salvador faced significantly higher constraints related to access to humanitarian aid and services between January–June 2022. This outcome resulted from the escalation of conflict in the case of Ukraine and the state of emergency declared to address gang violence in the case of El Salvador
How are the access levels being calculated?
Our methodology groups 9 indicators under 3 dimensions:
Each indicator is given a score from 0–3 and marked with ‘X’ when there is insufficient information to determine a score.
PILLAR 1Access of people in need to aid
• Denial of existence of humanitarian needs or entitlements to assistance
• Restriction and obstruction of access to services and assistance
"In the Northwest and Southwest regions of Cameroon, non-state armed groups often impose lockdowns that significantly restrict the movement of both people in need and humanitarian responders. Many of these lockdowns are put in place on Mondays, leading to the term ‘ghost town Mondays’."
PILLAR 2 Access of humanitarian agencies to people in need
• Impediments to enter the country
• Restriction of movement within the country
• Interference into implementation of humanitarian activities
• Violence against humanitarian personnel, facilities, and assets
"Checkpoints can also constrain movement and humanitarian response. In South Sudan, armed forces and civil authorities set up and control over 300 checkpoints along major trade routes. Checkpoint taxes for a return journey between Juba and Bentiu easily costs over USD 3,000, making transport in South Sudan among the most expensive in the world."
PILLAR 3Physical, environmental, and security constraints
• Ongoing insecurity or hostilities affecting humanitarian assistance
• Presence of landmines, improvised explosive devices (IEDs),
explosive remnants of war (ERW), and unexploded ordnance (UXOs)
• Physical constraints in the environment
"Six tropical cyclones and storms during the cyclone season between mid-January to May heavily affected Madagascar. Floods and landslides damaged key roads, such as RN13 connecting southern Madagascar to the rest of the country."